A big league baseball manager, just to qualify for the job, must be regarded by his employers as a man with as many facets as the Koh-inoor diamond. He must seem to have the strategic foresight of an admiral of the fleet, the human understanding of a priest, the disciplinary tendencies of a parole officer, the financial acumen of a corporation president, the belligerence of a wounded grizzly, the competitive urge of a race horse and the constitution of a cat, to name just a few of the requirements. The job pays well—as much as $60,000 a year for a perennial winner like Casey Stengel—but there is hardly a man in the profession who does not occasionally ask himself why he didn't take up some fairly stable occupation like safe cracking. Nonetheless, to a baseball man there is no recognition quite equal to that of being one of the 16 major league managers; it is the ultimate tribute, like a lawyer being appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States.
The turnover in major league managers is appalling, considering the job's importance. Last year there were eight "new" managers employed by the 16 major league teams—new in the sense that they were replacing other managers who had been dismissed. The explanation is quite simple; you have to win or come close to it to hold your job and, of course, only two managers can win. Success as a baseball manager really boils down to one simple formula: have plenty of good players who don't get injured or ill during the five-and-a-half-month season. Casey Stengel, the current genius among managers, is a case in point. Casey managed in the National League for nine years, three in Brooklyn and six in Boston, when those teams were on their uppers. Of the 23 men in National League history who have managed more than 1,000 games, he ranks a dubious 21st, with a won-lost percentage of .440. But since taking over with the Yankees in 1949, Stengel has won the American League pennant six of seven years and the World Series five times. The explanation: he now has the best players.
Actually, the past winter has been an off season of unusual security for incumbent managers. There are only three newcomers among the sacred 16, and all of them are in the National League. As should be expected, two of them—Fred Hutchinson with St. Louis and Bobby Bragan with Pittsburgh—have taken over seventh- and eighth-place clubs, where managerial changes are almost a matter of course. The third—Bill Rigney of the Giants—acquired a vacancy created by Leo Durocher's resignation, one of the very few instances of managerial abdication in the major leagues (although it is generally agreed that there was no serious resistance to Leo's decision following the Giants' mediocre showing last year).
The spare and serious Rigney, inheritor of a third-place ball club, has an option possessed not at all by Bragan and barely held by Hutchinson. He can go down as well as up. But Rigney doesn't expect the Giants to fail him. When he arrived in Arizona he said, "I know everyone here can field. What I'll have to do is pick the best hitters." With such hitters as Dusty Rhodes, Foster Castleman and Willie Mays to choose from, the task didn't appear too difficult. "As I see it," said Rigney, "my biggest job will be weeding out the pitching staff. I know the potentials are there. It's up to Bucky Walters and me to make it live up to the potentials."
As for Hutchinson and Bragan, neither is blessed with any remarkable playing talent that was lacking to their predecessors, so there is no particular reason to assume that their teams will be noticeably improved, assuming the rule is valid that a manager is no better than the players he has to manage. Yet each is enough of a personality in his own right to promise that the National League will be a richer source of entertainment as well as good baseball because of their presence there this year. Hutchinson's Cardinals have all too frequently been described as "the best seventh-place club in the history of the National League," but that doesn't impress or raise the hopes of a man who knows baseball as well as this somber former pitcher and prewar boy wonder who left the Detroit Tigers after two reasonably good managerial years because his boss refused to extend his contract for more than & single year. "A club finishes in seventh place," he will tell you, "because they aren't any better than that."
Bragan's problem is considerably different. Where Hutchinson has a handful of proven stars like Stan Musial and Red Schoendienst and Bill Virdon and Wally Moon around which to build a better team, Bragan has inherited what is known throughout the baseball circuit as Branch Rickey's youth movement. Five years ago Rickey moved to Pittsburgh to revitalize the moribund Pirates, to build the kind of organization he had created for the Cardinals during their great Gas House Gang days, and after that for Brooklyn, which is still enjoying the fruits of his wise horticulture. At Pittsburgh Rickey has assembled a squad which may one day perform miracles, but today they are still just promising young men. Bragan's task is to hasten their progress.
These two young managers, 36-year-old Hutchinson and 37-year-old Bragan, offer quite a contrast. Both grew up in the game, Hutchinson as a prodigy who won 25 games as a pitcher for Seattle in the Pacific Coast League in the summer of his 19th year when he was just out of high school, Bragan as an infielder-converted-into-catcher for the Phillies and Dodgers during the 1940s. Hutchinson was a success—not a great one, but a success—as a pitcher until, one day in the summer of 1952, Red Rolfe was fired as manager of the Tigers and Fred was overnight promoted to boss. Bragan was strictly a journeyman ballplayer, barely good enough for the big leagues. His one moment of fame arrived during the 1947 World Series when he hit a pinch double for the Dodgers in the sixth inning of the sixth game. "Just like a blind hawg finding an acorn," he drawled in his Alabama accent when a reporter reminded him of it in Florida this spring. The next year Bragan faced reality. He went to Branch Rickey, then the Dodgers' general manager, and announced he didn't think he would ever cut much ice as a player. The way he tells it now, "Pee Wee Reese and I came up the same year. Pee Wee was a big star. I was just another player. But I figured I knew baseball. So I asked Mr. Rickey for a chance to manage. There was an opening the next spring at Fort Worth, and Mr. Rickey sent me there."
Ever since Rickey paved the way in 1948, Bragan has been a minor league whiz. He won pennants his first two years, then finished second, fourth and second again. After that he moved to Hollywood, finishing first, second and third in three years. Including three winters in the Cuban League, Bragan's teams have never finished out of the first division. He was ripe for the big time, and this year Rickey promoted him to the parent team.
Hutchinson, on the other hand, had to build his record with Detroit at a time when the owners were engaged in something equivalent to Rickey's youth movement. The club was in eighth place when he took over in 1952, and it finished there. It moved to sixth and then fifth during the next two years, and then Hutch quit in his dispute over a longer contract. Last year he was hired to manage Seattle, his hometown team, and he won the Pacific Coast League championship, nosing out Bragan's third-place Hollywood Stars. The Cardinals hired him as part of a movement to bring new life to a once great but now ailing organization.
Bragan and Hutchinson are as unlike in temperament as they are in appearance. The new Cardinal manager is a big (210 pounds), slow-moving, slow-talking bear of a man with one of the most awesome tempers in baseball. In his active pitching days he had a reputation for taking the locker room apart when he was removed from the game during a bad inning. Once while managing Detroit he was so riled up after losing a close game to the White Sox that he walked the full 10 miles from the ball park to his home to cool off before facing his wife.
Bragan, by way of contrast, is a stumpy 185-pounder with an almost birdlike abruptness in the way he moves and talks. He sits bolt upright on the bench, usually with his arms folded, his brown eyes darting here and there around the field, barking staccato orders in a shrill voice that carries to the farthest corner of any ball field. "Corre ràpido, Leo," he may suddenly shout to one of his Latin American ballplayers, indicating he wants him to play in closer on a speedy batter. His reputation for playing-field tantrums is even more spectacular than Hutchinson's. Every well-read fan knows by now about his run-ins with Coast League umpires: how he lay prone in the coach's box once after he was thumbed from a game; how after another ejection he did a slow strip tease with his catcher's equipment and uniform. However, with Bragan, these antics stem more from an impish sense of the ridiculous than a violent temper. According to Red Munger, a veteran pitcher he brought with him from Hollywood to Pittsburgh, Bragan's feud with the umpires was simply the outgrowth of a good baseball man's efforts to keep the men in blue on their toes and his own players out of trouble when they protested atrocious decisions.
DEJECTED? NOT BRAGAN
Bragan will have to call on his full supply of baseball knowledge if he is to hoist the young Pirates out of the cellar position they have monopolized for the last four years, but he is far from dejected at the prospects. "There's no reason we shouldn't improve considerably this year," he said recently as his eyes roamed over the Florida playing field where his athletes were working up a springtime sweat. "It's a young ball club, but don't forget all these kids are a year older and are that much more familiar with their big league uniforms. I have strong pitching—oh, sure, I could use a couple of good lefthanders—so I want to build a good defensive club. We don't have much power, so we aren't going to get many runs for these pitchers. That means we'll have to be a running club. We've got to be able to go from first to third." To make sure his players get from first to third as quickly as possible, Bragan had white lines drawn four yards outside a direct course between the bases. No runner rounding the bases was allowed to step outside these lines. "You should only take 16 steps between the bases," the manager explained. "If a man runs wide and takes 20 steps it just takes him that much longer."
Hutchinson, as befits a man who is familiar with a baseball's frequently unpredictable bounces, refuses to allow himself much optimism over his 1956 prospects. "There is only so much you can do in baseball," he will tell you as he slouches in the dugout, taking in the scene on the field with rarely a change of expression. "If your players play well, you probably win. If they don't, you don't. There aren't any secrets to the game that any good manager doesn't know.
"Take this business of relieving pitchers. A fellow's out there getting hit around a little, so what do you do? If you have a better man in the bullpen you bring him in. But if the guy in the bullpen isn't any better than the one who is already pitching, then you got to leave your pitcher in. There's no more mystery to it than that."
Despite their more obvious contrasts, Bragan and Hutchinson have one important quality in common: they are both good executives with confidence in their assistants. They both know a good manager can't do everything, and neither tries to. Frank Lane, Hutchinson's boss, was talking about this the other day, when he said, "A good manager must be first of all just what his name says he is—a manager of men." Branch Rickey, Bragan's boss, put the same idea another way: "Bobby is a fine manager because his men respect him, and he respects them. He has integrity, and they sense it." Bragan's peppery presence on the third-base coaching line and Hutchinson's slouching hulk in the dugout should be fixtures in the league for some time to come, since their bosses claim they are not required to produce instantaneous success while they are rebuilding their forces. How their efforts will affect the other teams was summed up in Bragan's prediction for the Pirates: "We'll always be hard to beat, and we're going to win some games that we're not supposed to." The same could be said for the Cardinals. As for Bill Rigney, he figured at training's end: "We have as good a chance as anyone to take the whole ball of wax."
PITCHING BATTING PRACTICE, CARDINALS' HUTCHINSON CONCENTRATES FIERCELY AS BILL POSEDEL LOOKS ON
THE 16 MAJOR LEAGUE, MANAGERS, THE PUBLIC VOICES OF BASEBALL, ASSEMBLE IN AN IMAGINARY ROMAN FORUM PRESIDED OVER—NATURALLY—BY SENATOR CASEY STENGEL FOR A PRIVATE DISCUSSION OF THEIR PROBLEMS AND OF THE GAME ITSELF
PIRATES' BRAGAN BROODS ON THE FUTURE
GIANTS' RIGNEY HOLLERS FOR A PENNANT
Maybe I'm too dumb to learn from experience. But a slump and how to get outta one is a complete mystery to me. It ain't like a gallstone or a busted appendix that you can diagnose with X-rays.
If you can say that the morale of your club is good after losing 10 out of 12 games, then your intelligence is a little low.
Whenever I'm about to bawl out one of my heroes for railing a stupid play, my conscience begins to nag.
Believe what you like; no man a get-ever resigns.
It's easier to manage in the minors.
Nothing shocks me any more.
Oh, boy, being a manager is Quite a job.
I would like to have a team which runs hell-bent for election.
It'll be a changing club, but I'm afraid that may be all it will be.
How can you have any fun managing'? It's no fun sitting on that, bench day after clay, trying to figure out, things before they happen. It's a terrific strain.
Give me a guy who can bust that ball, and a guy who can throw, and managing's a cinch.
I'm not an actor. I don't want, to be a character. I just want to keep on winning ball games.
The first thing a manager learns is to stay on the bench.
I wish I were 23 again.
Of course, I will give the job everything I have.
It all boils down to what you've got to operate with and how you operate.